Ashlee Sierra

In digital marketing, a conversion is the gold standard of user interaction. Technically speaking, it’s a measurement of people who have taken a particular action such as completing a purchase, signing up for a newsletter or filling out a form. 

But I prefer to think of it as a transformation. From passerby to audience member; from stranger to friend. And in my head, that transformation looks something like this:

The good news is that you don’t have to sit around and wait for the right user behavior. Instead, you can use solutions like Google Analytics conversions — a powerful part of your GA4 tool belt. You’ll get an enhanced conversion data stream, top-notch analytics options and valuable insights, all right at your fingertips.

Let’s learn more about GA4 conversions — what they are, how to track them and why they should be one of your new favorite tools.

What Is a GA4 Conversion?

A conversion event can be many things and may even differ from one marketing campaign to the next. That’s a good thing because it keeps you flexible.

However, it also means that no tool — not even GA4 conversion tracking — can know exactly what you’re looking for right off the shelf. There are plenty of ways to personalize, adjust and set new parameters, but you still need to know where GA4 is starting from — its baseline definition of a conversion. And to understand that, we’ll have to take a quick step back to a previous iteration: Universal Analytics.

In UA, you could measure conversions through “goals” and “E-commerce transactions.” GA doesn’t distinguish between these metrics; instead, it lumps them together as “key events.” (I know, I know — Google Analytics changes keep us all on our toes.)  

Let’s break it down:

GA4 Event

An event is an occurrence on your website or app. It’s generally broken into two categories:

  • User interaction: This can include clicking a link, filling out a form, making a purchase and more.
  • System performance: This is more about the underlying technology and measures stuff like app crashes.

GA4 does a lot of this work for you, tracking automatically collected events and enhanced measurement events by default. Other event types, including recommended and custom, give you varying levels of control — but they have to be set up by hand.

G4 Conversion

In the language of GA4, a conversion is a special kind of event — a key event. These represent specific actions that are particularly important to your business. All you have to do is create a regular event and then give it this unique designation. GA4 does the rest, tracking the identified audience trigger across all channels.

Although both tools are valuable, an event is a broader look at user interaction, while a conversion event is a more specific measurement of critical behaviors. 

Common Types of Conversions

If you suddenly feel like tracking conversions has a lot of steps, I have bad news: You’re right. One downside of GA4 conversion events is that they require manual setup in a way other enhanced measurement tools don’t. Unfortunately, there’s no all-inclusive dropdown box with all the options you could ever need.

But in other ways, that’s a good thing. If you want to track conversion rates unique to your business or even an individual marketing campaign, relying on an existing event parameter would quickly become limiting. 

For example, GA4 makes it possible to measure a huge range of conversions at any level:


A conversion path has a lot of small steps. Sure, you want to track big stuff that leads directly to sales and profit — but sometimes you need to see the forest for the trees. In GA4, those trees are micro-conversions.

You can track these little guys in whatever way you see fit — but most of the time, the idea is to create a new event for any user behavior indicating progress toward one of your key goals. Examples include:

  • Adding items to a shopping cart.
  • Signing up for a newsletter.
  • Viewing a product demo.
  • Engaging with high-value content such as a white paper.

These are all valuable insights into your “hooks” — anything on your website or app that catches a user’s attention so you can start reeling them in. 

The problem with hooks is that both fish and customers can sometimes wriggle off them. That’s why it’s important to keep micro-conversions in perspective. Yes, an audience trigger in this category can indicate that your content is doing its job or that a sale is around the corner — but it can just as often be a sign that users never go beyond this point.


In the wide and wonderful world of Google Analytics conversion tracking, it all comes down to this: the big wins. These macro-conversions are primary events that impact your bottom line, including:

  • E-commerce transactions (purchases).
  • Form submissions (leads).
  • Account registrations.
  • Subscription sign-ups.

Remember, micro-conversions can be as loosely related to success as you want; as long as they signal some kind of progress and give you important information about possible future interactions, you’re golden. But the rules are a bit more stringent for macro-conversions. To get the most out of this category, keep it focused on concrete wins with measurable results. 

This also means that macro-conversions are an after-the-fact notification. While micro-conversions focus on signs that something could be happening, their bigger siblings are all about wins that have already taken place.

Why Track Conversions in GA4?

A new conversion event is like the Bat Signal of digital marketing. Big or small, it indicates opportunity — and that kind of real-time data keeps you flexible in a fast-moving world.

Here’s a look at some of the other benefits of conversion tracking:

Measure Performance

By tracking conversions, you can measure the effectiveness of marketing campaigns, new website changes or app updates. Understanding which actions lead to conversions helps you see what’s working well and what needs improvement.

Identify Optimization Opportunities

By analyzing conversion metrics, you can catch problem areas where you’re losing potential customers — for example, a landing page with a poor user experience that discourages macro-conversions. These insights enable you to make informed, confident decisions about improvements that have real impact.

Calculate ROI

Tracking conversions allows you to calculate return on investment (ROI) for your marketing efforts. Better yet, you can attribute conversions to specific campaigns, channels or sources, helping you determine which marketing channels drive the most valuable traffic.

Enhance Targeted Marketing

With conversion data, you can understand your audience’s preferences, behaviors and interests. That means you’re more prepared to tailor your targeted marketing campaigns accordingly.

Allocate Resources

Conversion tracking helps you allocate your marketing budget more effectively. By identifying the channels and campaigns that either A) deliver the best results or B) need a little help, you can decide how to plan your next marketing moves.

Enable Data-Driven Decision-Making

Conversion data provides valuable insights into your business strategies. Whether it’s optimizing your website’s user experience, refining your product offerings or adjusting your marketing tactics, conversion tracking ensures that your decisions are grounded in real data — not guesswork.

How To Create an Event and Track Conversions in GA4

Are you ready to create event data that will redefine your content approach, improve your website and change your life forever? 

OK, I can’t guarantee that last one. But I do know that GA4 conversions have a lot of value if you know how to set them up.

Here’s how to get started:

#1: Identify Your Conversion Parameters

Remember, GA4 doesn’t know what’s most important to your business. It’s up to you to define micro- and macro-conversions based on:

  • Your business goals.
  • Each individual marketing campaign.
  • Key performance indicators (KPIs).
  • The intended conversion path.

For best results, brainstorm big and small conversion events together so the former lead neatly into the latter.

#2: Create Events

Next, it’s time to use GA4 to create these events. Look through recommended and automatic events first, but plan on setting up custom events to capture the more specific or niche parameters you identified earlier.

#3: Mark Events as Conversions

There’s a difference between “events” and “key events.” You have to manually mark conversion tracking events to ensure full visibility and measurement — otherwise, GA4 will treat them like any other user behavior.

Bonus: Google Tag Manager

Google Tag Manager is a separate but related tool that helps you manage your GA4 tracking efforts. It provides greater control, flexibility and efficiency in measuring and utilizing conversion data. This step is the perfect time to put it to work! 

#4: View Conversion Reports

GA4 reports are the fruit of your efforts. To include conversion tracking data, you’ll have to use the “Customize report” option, then go into “Metrics” and select the option/s that best fit your needs. After that, you’re free to view insights from across your campaigns — which means you can compare KPIs, find connections and more.

Get More From Conversion Tracking

Tracking conversions is part of the scientific method — the “analyzing data” and “drawing conclusions” steps, to be exact. That means it’s only part of the science (and art) of marketing. To master the other steps, you’ll need to take what you learn here and apply it to your content creation, website design, customer communications and more.

Fortunately, GA4 has plenty of tools for that, too. So go out there and get creating!